Okay, has it been long enough that we can stop worrying about Porsche calling the Taycan a "turbo" even though electric cars obviously don't have turbochargers yet? It's obvious that Porsche is using the word as a marketing buzzword to let people know that these are the fast ones. While I'm not going to say that it's okay, I think I'm done arguing about it and willing to let it slide without further comment. Okay, with that out of the way, let's get into the details.
As you probably know by now, the Taycan Turbo and Taycan Turbo S have the same base horsepower rating of 616 horsepower when not in their respective overboost modes. The Turbo S, however, has a slight advantage on power in that overboost mode. The two cars share the same rear motor and two-speed transmission, but the front motor in the Turbo S is a bit larger to facilitate a 750 horsepower/774 lb-ft of torque power rating in comparison to the Non-S, which makes do with 670 horses and 626 torques. Both are plenty quick, however with the Turbo shooting to sixty in 3.2 and the Turbo S doing it in 2.8 (though Car and Driver did it in 2.4 seconds!)
Above and beyond the power differential, there are numerous aesthetic changes and standard equipment upgrades between the two cars. For example, did you know that the Turbo has an open vent behind the front wheels while the Turbo S has that vent blocked off? I don't know the exact reasoning, but perhaps Porsche is using that turbulent front wheel well air to cool the larger Turbo S front motor, while the standard Turbo gets to vent that air out the side of the car. Then there are the lower side blades which showcase in carbon fiber on the Turbo S.
For a comprehensive breakdown of the differences between these two, and why both are better than the fastest 911, check out this video from The Straight Pipes up in Canada. Yuri and Jakub are here to deliver the whole story from the driver's seat.